A critical review of Optimization MANET routing protocols

A critical review of Optimization MANET routing protocols


  • Riyadh Rahef Nuiaa Wasit University
  • Ali Hakem Alsaeedi College of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq
  • Salam Saad Alkafagi Babylon Education Directorate, Ministry of Education, Babil, Iraq
  • Ali Saeed D. Alfoudi College of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq




Routing protocols, Optimization Network, Metaheuristics Optimization, Path loss, quality of service


The main challenges in routing protocols are node mobility, resource constraints, error-prone channel states, and problems with hidden and unprotected terminals. This article provides an overview of the main protocols, their problems, and ways to improve them. The cell phone allows communication between two moving units via mobile stations (MS), mobile units, and landing units. The term "mobile ad hoc network" (MANET) refers to a group of devices connecting and communicating. The military, law enforcement, and emergency services have quickly become interested in MANETS because they provide a high quality of service. Path loss (PL), one of the biggest problems in wireless communications, can be caused by multiple reflections from an obstacle or by the source of the signal being far from the destination on the network. Multipath propagation, path loss, and interference reduce the network's quality of service (QoS). The best route is added to a router's routing table using a dynamic routing protocol, and an alternate path is chosen when the primary route is unavailable.


A. S. Mustafa, M. M. Al-Heeti, M. M. Hamdi, and A. M. Shantaf, “Performance Ana-lyzing the Effect of Network Size on Routing Protocols in MANETs,” HORA 2020 - 2nd Int. Congr. Human-Computer Interact. Optim. Robot. Appl. Proc., 2020, doi: 10.1109/HORA49412.2020.9152838.

A. Singh, K. Chatterjee, and S. C. Satapathy, “An edge based hybrid intrusion detection framework for mobile edge computing,” Complex Intell. Syst., 2021, doi: 10.1007/s40747-021-00498-4.

J. khan, A. Abbas, and K. khan, “Cellular Handover approaches in 2.5G to 5G Tech-nology,” Int. J. Comput. Appl., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 28–37, 2011, doi: 10.5120/2482-2984.

R. R. Nuiaa, S. Manickam, and A. H. Alsaeedi, “Distributed reflection denial of service attack: A critical review,” Int. J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 5327–5341, 2021, doi: 10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp5327-5341.

H. M. E. MOHAMED, “Non Orthogonal Multiple Access Technique for 5G Network.” 2022.

F. T. Al-Dhief, N. Sabri, M. S. Salim, S. Fouad, and S. A. Aljunid, “MANET Routing Protocols Evaluation: AODV, DSR and DSDV Perspective,” MATEC Web Conf., vol. 150, pp. 1–6, 2018, doi: 10.1051/matecconf/201815006024.

[7] D. Leite, I. Škrjanc, and F. Gomide, “An overview on evolving systems and learn-ing from stream data,” Evol. Syst., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 181–198, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s12530-020-09334-5.

M. S. Alsahli, M. M. Almasri, M. Al-Akhras, A. I. Al-Issa, and M. Alawairdhi, “Evalua-tion of Machine Learning Algorithms for Intrusion Detection System in WSN,” Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 617–626, 2021, doi: 10.14569/IJACSA.2021.0120574.

A. K. Habboush, “Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) Based MANET Routing Protocols: A Comprehensive Review,” Comput. Inf. Sci., vol. 12, no. 1, p. 82, 2019, doi: 10.5539/cis.v12n1p82.

T. A. N. Abdali, R. Hassan, R. C. Muniyandi, A. H. M. Aman, Q. N. Nguyen, and A. S. Al-Khaleefa, “Optimized particle swarm optimization algorithm for the realization of an enhanced energy-aware location-aided routing protocol in manet,” Inf., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1–17, 2020, doi: 10.3390/info11110529.

A. Mishra, S. Singh, and A. K. Tripathi, “Comparison of MANET routing protocols,” Int. J. Comput. Sci. Mob. Comput, vol. 8, no. March, pp. 67–74, 2019, [Online]. Avail-able: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Shweta-Singh-35/publication/331980713_Comparison_of_Manet_Routing_Protocols/links/5c98a669299bf11169457ef3/Comparison-of-Manet-Routing-Protocols.pdf.

H. M. Anwer, “A Framework for Efficient Network Anomaly Intrusion Detection with Features Selection,” pp. 157–162, 2018.

M. Whitney, “Teaching Accessible Design: Integrating Accessibility Principles and Practices into an Introductory Web Design Course,” Proc. EDSIG Conf., vol. 18, no. February, pp. 1–10, 2019.

A. K. Sangaiah, S. Rezaei, A. Javadpour, F. Miri, W. Zhang, and D. Wang, “Automatic Fault Detection and Diagnosis in Cellular Networks and Beyond 5G: Intelligent Net-work Management,” Algorithms, vol. 15, no. 11, p. 432, 2022.

R. R. Nuiaa, S. Manickam, A. H. Alsaeedi, and E. S. Alomari, “A new proactive feature selection model based on the enhanced optimization algorithms to detect DRDoS at-tacks,” Int. J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1869–1880, 2022, doi: 10.11591/ijece.v12i2.pp1869-1880.

J. M. G. Hidalgo, G. C. Bringas, E. P. Sánz, and F. C. García, “Content based SMS spam filtering,” Proc. 2006 ACM Symp. Doc. Eng. DocEng 2006, vol. 2006, pp. 107–114, 2006, doi: 10.1145/1166160.1166191.

S. M. Hadi et al., “Trigonometric words ranking model for spam message classifica-tion,” IET Networks, 2022, doi: 10.1049/ntw2.12063.

S. S. Mohamed Ali, A. H. Alsaeedi, D. Al-Shammary, H. H. Alsaeedi, and H. W. Abid, “Efficient intelligent system for diagnosis pneumonia (SARSCOVID19) in X-ray imag-es empowered with initial clustering,” Indones. J. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 241–251, 2021, doi: 10.11591/ijeecs.v22.i1.pp241-251.

H. Luo, P. Zerfos, J. Kong, S. Lu, and L. Zhang, “Self-securing ad hoc wireless net-works,” Proc. - IEEE Symp. Comput. Commun., pp. 567–574, 2002, doi: 10.1109/ISCC.2002.1021731.

M. S. Daas and S. Chikhi, “Response surface methodology for performance analysis and modeling of MANET routing protocols,” Int. J. Comput. Networks Commun., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 45–61, 2018, doi: 10.5121/ijcnc.2018.10104.

S. M. Alkahtani and F. Alturki, “Performance Evaluation of Different Mobile Ad-hoc Network Routing Protocols in Difficult Situations,” Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 158–167, 2021, doi: 10.14569/IJACSA.2021.0120119.

M. Alnabhan, S. Alsaraireh, B. K. Pattanayak, A. K. Habboush, and M. Hammad, “Per-formance analysis and enhancement of position-based routing protocols in MANETS,” Int. J. Knowledge-Based Intell. Eng. Syst., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 109–120, 2019, doi: 10.3233/KES-190404.

D. J. Fehér and B. Sándor, “Log File Authentication and Storage on Blockchain Net-work,” SISY 2018 - IEEE 16th Int. Symp. Intell. Syst. Informatics, Proc., pp. 243–247, 2018, doi: 10.1109/SISY.2018.8524848.

M. Z. Zakaria, S. Mutalib, S. A. Rahman, S. J. Elias, and A. Z. Shahuddin, “Solving RFID mobile reader path problem with optimization algorithms,” Indones. J. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1110–1116, 2019, doi: 10.11591/ijeecs.v13.i3.pp1110-1116.

P. Tang et al., “Channel measurement and path loss modeling from 220 GHz to 330 GHz for 6G wireless communications,” China Commun., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 19–32, 2021.

W. Tang et al., “Wireless Communications with Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface: Path Loss Modeling and Experimental Measurement,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 421–439, 2021, doi: 10.1109/TWC.2020.3024887.

A. R. Gad, A. A. Nashat, and T. M. Barkat, “Intrusion Detection System Using Machine Learning for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Based on ToN-IoT Dataset,” IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 142206–142217, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3120626.

M. J. N. Mahi et al., “A Review on VANET Research: Perspective of Recent Emerging Technologies,” IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 65760–65783, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3183605.

M. Alnabhan, M. Alshuqran, M. Hammad, and M. Al Nawayseh, “Performance evalua-tion of unicast routing protocols in MANETs-current state and future prospects,” Int. J. Interact. Mob. Technol., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 84–97, 2017, doi: 10.3991/ijim.v11i1.6295.

R. Hemalatha, R. Umamaheswari, and S. Jothi, “Optimal route maintenance based on adaptive equilibrium optimization and GTA based route discovery model in MANET,” Peer-to-Peer Netw. Appl., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 3416–3430, 2021.

U. Allimuthu and K. Mahalakshmi, “Intelligent route discovery towards rushing attacks in ad hoc wireless networks,” J. Ambient Intell. Humaniz. Comput., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 921–960, 2022.

S. Venkatasubramanian, A. Suhasini, and C. Vennila, “QoS Provisioning in MANET Using Fuzzy-Based Multifactor Multipath Routing Metric,” in Sustainable Communica-tion Networks and Application, Springer, 2022, pp. 555–566.

A. M. Soomro et al., “Comparative Review of Routing Protocols in MANET for Future Research in Disaster Management,” J. Commun., vol. 17, no. 9, 2022.

R. Ramalingam et al., “Routing Protocol for MANET Based on QoS-Aware Service Composition with Dynamic Secured Broker Selection,” Electronics, vol. 11, no. 17, p. 2637, 2022.

S. Manickam, R. Rahef Nuiaa, A. Hakem Alsaeedi, Z. A. A. Alyasseri, M. A. Moham-med, and M. M. Jaber, “An enhanced mechanism for detection of Domain Name Sys-tem-based distributed reflection denial of service attacks depending on modified me-taheuristic algorithms and adaptive thresholding techniques,” IET Networks, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 169–181, 2022, doi: 10.1049/ntw2.12043.

A. S. Alfoudi et al., “Hyper clustering model for dynamic network intrusion detection,” IET Commun., 2022, doi: 10.1049/cmu2.12523.

H. S. Mansour et al., “Cross-Layer and Energy-Aware AODV Routing Protocol for Fly-ing Ad-hoc Networks,” sustainability, vol. 14, no. 15, p. 8980, 2022.

P. Sarao, “Comparison of AODV, DSR, and DSDV routing protocols in a wireless net-work,” J. Commun., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 175–181, 2018, doi: 10.12720/jcm.13.4.175-181.

Z. Yang, L. Li, F. Gu, X. Ling, and M. Hajiee, “TADR-EAODV: A trust-aware dynamic routing algorithm based on extended AODV protocol for secure communications in wireless sensor networks,” Internet of Things, vol. 20, p. 100627, 2022.

M. G. K. Alabdullah, B. M. Atiyah, K. S. Khalaf, and S. H. Yadgar, “Analysis and sim-ulation of three MANET routing protocols: A research on AODV, DSR & DSDV char-acteristics and their performance evaluation,” Period. Eng. Nat. Sci., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1228–1238, 2019, doi: 10.21533/pen.v7i3.717.

A. H. Jabor and A. H. Ali, “Dual Heuristic Feature Selection Based on Genetic Algo-rithm and Binary Particle Swarm Optimization,” J. Univ. BABYLON Pure Appl. Sci., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 171–183, 2019, doi: 10.29196/jubpas.v27i1.2106.

A. H. Al-saeedi, “Binary Mean-Variance Mapping Optimization Algorithm (BMVMO),” J. Appl. Phys. Sci., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 42–47, 2016, doi: 10.20474/japs-2.2.3.

A. S. Alfoudi, A. H. Alsaeedi, M. H. Abed, A. M. Otebolaku, and Y. S. Razooqi, “Palm Vein Identification Based on Hybrid Feature Selection Model,” Int. J. Intell. Eng. Syst., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 469–478, 2021, doi: 10.22266/ijies2021.1031.41.

R. R. Nuiaa, A. H. Alsaeedi, S. Manickam, and D. E. J. Al-Shammary, “Evolving Dy-namic Fuzzy Clustering (EDFC) to Enhance DRDoS_DNS Attacks Detection Mech-nism,” Int. J. Intell. Eng. Syst., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 509–519, 2022, doi: 10.22266/IJIES2022.0228.46.

M. Mafarja, A. Qasem, A. Asghar, and I. Aljarah, “Efficient Hybrid Nature-Inspired Binary Optimizers for Feature Selection,” 2019.

D. Al-Shammary, A. L. Albukhnefis, A. H. Alsaeedi, and M. Al-Asfoor, “Extended particle swarm optimization for feature selection of high-dimensional biomedical data,” Concurr. Comput. Pract. Exp., vol. 34, no. 10, p. e6776, 2022, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/cpe.6776.

S. Al-Janabi and A. Alkaim, “A novel optimization algorithm (Lion-AYAD) to find op-timal DNA protein synthesis,” Egypt. Informatics J., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 271–290, 2022, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eij.2022.01.004.

[48] N. Subramani, P. Mohan, Y. Alotaibi, S. Alghamdi, and O. I. Khalaf, “An efficient metaheuristic-based clustering with routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks,” Sensors, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 415, 2022.

Y. Yang, Y. Wu, H. Yuan, M. Khishe, and M. Mohammadi, “Nodes clustering and mul-ti-hop routing protocol optimization using hybrid chimp optimization and hunger games search algorithms for sustainable energy efficient underwater wireless sensor net-works,” Sustain. Comput. Informatics Syst., vol. 35, p. 100731, 2022.

A. A. Bahattab, “Designing ROACM routing protocol along with bandwidth allocation using seagull optimization for ad hoc wireless network,” Telecommun. Syst., vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 357–372, 2022.

D. Sarkar, S. Choudhury, and A. Majumder, “Enhanced-Ant-AODV for optimal route selection in mobile ad-hoc network,” J. King Saud Univ. - Comput. Inf. Sci., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1186–1201, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jksuci.2018.08.013.

M. Sindhwani, R. Singh, A. Sachdeva, and C. Singh, “Improvisation of optimization technique and AODV routing protocol in VANET,” Mater. Today Proc., vol. 49, pp. 3457–3461, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2021.03.727.

G. Najafi and S. J. Gudakahriz, “A Stable Routing Protocol based on DSR Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Int. J. Wirel. Microw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 14–22, 2018, doi: 10.5815/ijwmt.2018.03.02.




How to Cite

Al Ogaili, R., Hakem Alsaeedi, A., Saad Alkafagi , S., & Saeed D. Alfoudi, A. (2022). A critical review of Optimization MANET routing protocols. Wasit Journal of Computer and Mathematics Sciences, 1(4), 70–86. https://doi.org/10.31185/wjcm.94